We came up with three chemicals that act against plaque: antimicrobial agents, agents for plaque rupture, and antiadhesive compounds. Let’s take a look at each category separately.
1) Antimicrobial agents
These agents prevent the multiplication of bacteria on the tooth surface and the most effective of these is chlorhexidine.
This molecule is positively charged at both ends and “hangs” readily with negatively charged sites on the tooth enamel and in the cell walls of bacteria. After sticking, chlorhexidine releases the antimicrobial properties of destroying the cell walls of microorganisms and dissolving their contents.
2) Factors for plaque rupture
Sodium lauryl sulfate is typically used in toothpaste and mouthwashes as an anionic detergent that dissolves the plaque to reduce its accumulation. Moreover, it has antimicrobial activity but is not as intense as chlorhexidine.
3) An anti-adhesive compounds
These compounds are designed to alter the surface of the oral cavity. Many are still at an experimental stage and not marketed. Compounds containing fluoride, however, have been observed that exhibit similar characteristics.